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A MAP OF BINGHAM FOR 1586 (4)

Additional Holdings

This section deals with the various closes held by avarity of individuals in addition to their ‘home’ close, described in section 3.

60 Demesne Lands - Thomas Leake
61 Demesne lands with no specified tenant
62 By Closes
Closes additional to homesteads

Additional Holdings – Closes and by closes

The Orwins (“The Open Fields”, C S Orwin and C S Orwin, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press 1967, p104) refer to a situation similar to that found in Bingham, whereby closes were developed at the edge of some open fields or commons, in addition to closes around the castle at Laxton or the old manor houses in the case of Bingham. These would be an alternative to taking the new land into the existing open field system, perhaps, say the Orwins, as the advantages of farming in severalty rather than in common became apparent. Some furlongs in Bingham (e.g. East field 3 and 5) might also have been enclosed as they were solely occupied by the Demesne.

In the case of Bingham, these enclosures were mainly held as demesne land and all but three of these were occupied by Thomas Leake, as noted earlier a relative of the Stapletons who lived at Hasland near Chesterfield in Derbyshire. The land would most likely have been operated on his behalf by the bailiff, William Stapleton. Some of the enclosures were described in the survey as by-closes, which were generally small areas retrieved from the waste and enclosed for improvement. Mostly these were leased to tenants. A few tenants and a couple of cottagers had a close distant from their home holding.

In the text of the survey these holdings were listed as separate paragraphs within the entry for a particular occupier. For ease of data handling and presentation, these were entered as a record for each paragraph into a separate table of ‘Additional Holdings’ to the ‘Basic Holdings’ table (which listed homesteads or primary holding). The tables were related by reference to a sequence number generated by the basic holdings table – the integer part of the number in the list below. A paragraph number and a map number (‘tenant’ number and paragraph number concatenated as a two place decimal) were assigned to each. These additional holdings are described below in categories of holding; the map is at figure 4.

60 Demesne Lands

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60.01 This is noted in the homestead list – the ruined manor house, dovecote etc on Market Place. Beauvale House now stands on the site.
60.02 A pasture called Fell Dyke.
60.03 A pasture called the High Close – the western part of Parson’s Hill
60.04 A meadow noted as being south of High Close and north of the rectory, which places it firmly at the present Butt Field. It is referred to as Butt Close in the boundary information for 60.10 but not itself named.
60.05 A pasture called Priest’s Close. This has to be in the east end of the village to have Robert Porter’s freeholds to its west. Husband Street is to its north which supports the assumption that Husband Street continued along the south side of Crow Close and possibly through on that line to New Lane, as shown in the road layout.
60.06 a pasture called Cow Close; memo - a share of the Close, part of this manor is in the hands of Agnes Musson, widow, in which is a parcel lately acquired by John Blythe containing 3 roods 7d in the middle of the close, to the East side. This fits in with the known 1776 position of Cow Close and also helps identify Agnes Musson’s holding alongside Cogley Lane. John Blythe does not appear in the list of tenants etc.
60.07 a pasture divided in two. We assume the lane mentioned (on the west boundary) as curving to the west is the lane leading to Husband Street that was on the boundary of holding 17 to the north and west. It was bounded to the east by a meadow called Parson’s Piece, which we assume is a part of East Meadow, it not having a separate reference anywhere else. Parson’s doles, Parson’s Piece meadow, Priest Close and the furlong 6 Parson’s Leaze all seem to be of a group that seem to fit around here.
60.08 Three meadows lying together, with Chapel Lane and Bowmer Leaz as good markers on its east and north. Chappell croft to its south is a bit more doubtful as it does not appear in the list of named closes. It presumably refers to St Helen’s chapel near Kirkhill. It could be Chapel Close, 62.11, which we have placed further south to be on the site of the chapel. We have placed 60.08 so it meets 62.11. By 1776 it seems to have been divided into six small closes.
60.09 A marsh called the Saucey. This is identified from 1776 and 1841 lists of close names. This perhaps was the last vestige of the prehistoric lake area.
60.10 Four Closes called Mare Pole. These are identified as being north of the site of the manor and west of Butt Close, which is 60.04 but curiously the surveyor did not name it there.
60.11 A small parcel lately enclosed called Whynhill Close in the north part of the north field next to a close occupied by John Ludlam near to the Fosse Way No boundaries are noted but its position is revealed by the southern boundary detail for Bowmer Leaze (61.01) - ‘two strips next to Whinhill Close belonging to the Rectory’.
60.12 A meadow called New Close. The directions point to this being somewhere in East Meadow and on the parish border with Scarrington. We have used a 1776 close of appropriate area.
60.13 A meadow called Milne Meadow. The site is well defined in relation to Camberlands, Felldyke and the border with Car Colston. The name probably refers to a water mill called ‘Burmill’ (‘mill near the burgh or fort’) which was granted in the late 1100s to Thurgarton Priory along with the right to collect tolls from those people of Bingham & ‘Waterholm’ (probably the Holmes) who were required to grind their corn there. It probably lasted into later centuries and the present small pond just over the Car Colston boundary may represent its millpond.
60.14 A close called the Coneygarth in the West part of the East Field, formerly having many fruit trees but now fallen into decay. We have placed this on an appropriately sized 1776 enclosure in an area of Starnhill named Cunnery Nook (cunnery meaning rabbit warren).
60.15 A meadow called Olwark – Oldwark refers to the old castle (Margidunum). The boundary information puts Newton and Car Colston boundaries to the west and north respectively and Camberlands to the east.
60.16 A close called Coneygarth or warren at the east end of Lez Holmes with an old house or lodge. This could be anywhere at the east end of Parson’s Hill. We have placed it around an area the farmer reports having hit many stones when he used to plough, which may have been an indicator of the ruined lodge.

61 Demesne lands with no specified tenant

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61.01 Bowmer Leaze "not yet included in the collection". The last phrase may mean there was no current tenant – the collection being the list of tenants (?). We think ‘Bowmer’ was later corrupted to (or was a corruption of) ‘Bull Moor’. We have selected an appropriately sized 1776 enclosure fitting the boundary information of Fosse Road and West Ings. The area was “Allenbow Moor” in 1776.
61.02 Several small strips of pasture called Brick Leaz lying in the South part of West Ings. No boundary information given. The name suggests another brick works for Bingham; there is certainly much clay around here but no other evidnece.
61.03 A parcel of meadow in East Ings called Constable Mere, in the east end extending from the north side to the south side within the anciently recognised boundaries. Clearly situated somewhere around East Meadow, we have placed it on a 1776 enclosure adjacent to Granby Lane which we have identified as Constable Mears (Lane or boundary). Alternatively it might have been referring to the grazing either side of a wide lane – Constable Mears.

62 By Closes

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62.01 A small close called a by close now occupied by Robert Selby, by the permission of [Thomas] Leake. The location is well defined with Selby Lane on the west, South Field on the south and House occupied by Thomas Gill on the north. We have shown it south of 62.1 for reasons explained below. Robert Selby held the house and close on the opposite side of Selby Lane (now the footpath known as Jebb’s Lane).
62.02 Another close adjoining to the north of the last (62.01). This is also listed as being south of Thomas Gill’s house. To also meet the requirement for it to border south onto South Field would result in a very narrow field. We cannot find old map based evidence for any division between the two, but it could have been such a narrow strip. No occupant is noted.
62.03 By close occupied by Thomas Derie. The possible connection with Derry Lane and the northern boundary to Husband Street led us to this position for this by-close. Unfortunately there is no information for the west boundary – which we show as being demesne land 60.05.
62.04 Two similar closes occupied by William Spybie. ‘Similar’ refers to the previous paragraph in the text (62.03). We do not know what the similarity was, certainly not area, but maybe shape or maybe use. Our location for this shows some potential on the 1841map for there to have been two closes. The western boundary information was used to place it - Close occupied by William Spyby (from which close they are not now divided) – this is additional close 19.02, see below.
62.05 Another by close occupied by Brian Goodwin. Husband Street (Long Acre East at this point) was to the north and Guye Lane to its east, which we assume is Dark Lane. It is a good fit with the original boundaries for Holme Lodge.
62.06 A small pasture called a by close occupied by William Stapleton, gent, the bailiff of the manor. The establishment of a by close in the area between Market Street and Fairfield Street is intriguing as one might not have expected this to have previously been waste land, being in a central part of the village. It is partially opposite Stapleton’s main homestead. Maybe the definition of a by close was a bit vaguer than we have assumed?
62.07 Another enclosed parcel. Defined as being west of 62.08; both seem best placed here. 62.07 has East Moor Lane (now Cogley Lane) on its west and both have east Moor to the north. No southern boundary information is given for either. 62.08 is given as being on the east and occupied by Thomas Spyby jnr. No occupant is given for 62.07.
62.08 Parcel of land [presumably occupied by Thomas Spyby jnr - see 62.07]. East are the free lands of Alexander Rowarth (see house 70 [5] above). This is labelled 0 on the map. The n-s boundaries of the three closes have been chosen to match assumed boundaries from the Crow Close study (see chapter **). The GIS areas of the closes are therefore too large; the southern boundaries should be further north but we do not know how far, to allow for the northern extent of Crow Close ridge and furrow that can plainly be seen on an old air photograph.
62.09 A parcel occupied by Nicholas Selby. This was east of a close occupied by Robert Simpson(16.02, see below), north of Husband Street and adjoined Robert Porter’s freehold to the east.
62.10 A pasture called Fair Close occupied by Thomas Redman. The location information places this at the SW corner of Chappell Gate – the modern Newgate Street. It was probably the location of various horse and hiring fairs and latterly gave its name to Fairfield Street, formerly Pond Street.
62.11 An enclosed parcel called Chappell Close in which the ancient walls of the late St Helen's Chapel remain. At the top of Kirkhill, on an area recorded in 19th century deeds documents as Chapel Close, the position of this close is reasonably certain.

Closes additional to homesteads

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14 tenants and three cottagers held closes that were noted as additional to their home holding. In some cases these were adjacent to the home close but often at some distance.

13.02 A close or croft divided in two and tenanted by Agnes Musson (house 75 [13]. This was west of East Moor Lane (Cogley Lane)
14.02 A small parcel of pasture called a "pingle". Tenanted by Richard Maplethorp, this was listed as being next to 13.02. A Pingle was a small piece of enclosed land.
14.03 Another parcel of pasture. (Implies the previous close was also pasture). Tenanted by Richard Maplethorp. The west boundary is ‘land of the queen, which seems to be the site of Donkey Green’s Cottage (see 45, Long Acre East, above). 14.03 has Cow Close to its south and 14.02 has Cow Close to its north. The tithe map does not support this, but as the surveyor has it for both, we have followed this. The surveyor mentions only Land of the Queen as being east of Cow Close.
14.04 A meadow to the north [of paragraph 3], also tenanted by Richard Maplethorp. Agnes Musson was to the east and Stephen Parke to the west.
16.02 A small piece anciently called "The Grene", tenanted by Robert Simpson. The western boundary was East Moor [Cogley] Lane and south was Husband Street, putting this fairly well into the south west corner of Crow Close. Might the ancient name imply the village green or common of the DMV?
16.03 A pasture belonging to [the house in paragraph 1] near to Thorough Bridge on the east side of Starnhill Field, tenanted by Robert Simpson. Confusingly, Starnhill Field is said to be both east and west of 16.03 and Whatton Manor is south. This would put it in the same place as 64.03, which has even more precise information to place it where we have done. The picture in this area is further confused by 64.03, the directions for which could imply it is meadow alongside Granby Lane (Constable Mere) rather than a separate close off it.
19.02 A pasture tenanted by William Spybie. It was east of Spybie Lane, which seems to have been Fosters Lane and (here) the short stretch of Grantham Road between the bends.
19.03 A croft tenanted by William Spybie. Rectory lands to the west and Church Way to the south fixes this position. Church Way becomes ‘the lane from Deadmans Lane’ in the location information for Geoffrey Jennyngs who is east of 19.03.
20.02 A croft and barn tenanted by Richard White.
20.03 A close next to Oldwarke Close in the North Field tenanted by Richard White.
22.02 Close occupied by Thomas Dyrrie, BUT not listed in the text! it is mentioned only as being east of 60.02. His messuage etc was on North side of Husbands Lane.
23.02 A croft tenanted by Elizabeth Allane. The location information is firm – it is west of the lane from Selby Cross to the Church (Cherry Street).
23.03 A close tenanted by Elizabeth Allen. This is west of Chappell Garth which is not mentioned anywhere else in the survey! We have placed it next to Chappell Close. Chappell Meadows were north. The ‘dictionary.net’ definition of garth - A close; a yard; a croft; a garden; as, a cloister garth- hints at Chappel Close and a religious building [St Helen’s chapel] being next door.
24.02 A meadow tenanted by Brian Wheatley. This was west of Robert Porter’s freeholds and bordered on East Moor (N and E). South was John Skinner (house 47) for locating which we used the position of 24.02!
29.02 Two pastures tenanted by John Ludlam who was a freeholder. These were south of the Saucey, the position of which is well documented.
29.03 A pasture in the North Field next to the Fosse Way tenanted by John Ludlam who was a freeholder.
30.02 A croft tenanted by Geoffrey Jennyngs. Positioned between two freeholdings of George Gelstrop on Husband Street [Long Acre East].
32.02 An enclosed meadow tenanted by William Morley. This was between 47 (itself positioned by reference to 24.02) and The Parson’s Dole on East Meadow (not specifically listed in the survey). The location of all four properties here is tentative but tenable because of the reference in 24.02 to being east of Robert Porter’s freehold and joining East Meadow.
32.03 A parcel of pasture next to Spybie Lane tenanted by William Morley. We could make this and adjacent plots (66.02 and 19.02) fit the map with reasonably accurate areas only by having Spybie Lane on its east rather than west as in the text.
36.02 Several strips attached to said cottage, called Leaze, and lying in Newton, occupied by cottager Henry Harrison. The said cottage was 62, near Per Cross at the junction of modern Market Street and Husband Street. The area of this was only 0.08 acre (387 square yards), hardly enough for a cottager to grow produce which probably explains why the occupation of these strips (not noted in the open fields listings) came with (attached to) tenancy of the cottage. Even in 1841 a small area north of Buggins Cottage on the Fosse was part of Newton Parish which is why we have located 36.02 here. There was no other locational information.
38.02 A mill on the west side of West Moor Lane and 1 bovate of land [area not given], occupied by cottager John Allane. Allane lived at house 15, in Market Place opposite where we have placed the common bakehouse (see 15 and 16). With no land here one must assume his full time occupation was as a miller. The text did not reveal whether the mill was wind or water powered.
39.02 A parcel called a Landmere, the perquisite of George Chaworth of the manor of Wyverton. Occupied by cottager Thomas Gill who held 79 (corner of Selby Lane and Husband Street). No boundaries were given. ‘Landmere’ means boundary, so we placed it on the southern parish boundary as near to Wyverton Hall as we could, using Wyverton Gate rather than Tithby Road.
64.02 A toft [lands belonging to the collection] tenanted by Thomas Redman. [63] is on its east, Husband Street to the north.
64.03 Meadow next to Thoroughbrige in the east corner of Starnehill Meadow, next to the meadow called the Smyte, tenanted by Thomas Redman. There was a note that Redman also had two strips in Newton for which he was taxed four beasts in the common fields and pastures of Newton.
65.02 No description is given of this piece, tenanted by Thomas Spybie, which had Spybie Lane to the east and a close occupied by William Morley on the west, although we think this is a mistake and Morley’s close is North (32.03).
66.02 A pasture called Brockay Close, lying between the Common Meadow called East Ings and Brock Leaz in all other parts, tenanted by Stephen Parke. Probably the earliest of the closes that eventually made up the concentration of fields in 1776 at Brocker Farm
66.03 A little meadow, tenanted by Stephen Parke. This was north of Cow Close and west of Richard Mapplethorp’s close 14.04.


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