- BINGHAM: AN OVERVIEW
- HISTORY OF BINGHAM
- STUDY OF OLD MAPS
- BUILT HERITAGE
- CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
- FARMING IN BINGHAM
- BINGHAM AT WAR
- BINGHAM'S RAILWAYS
- ORAL HISTORY
- NATURAL HISTORY
A MAP OF BINGHAM FOR 1586 (6)
Mapping the furlongs in South Field
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There were 33 furlongs, of which 20 had directional information. 11 were named. As with other furlongs, the permutations for distributing furlongs are many. Our initial arrangement was severely amended to incorporate more sinuous boundaries than we did at first. Click here (link to pop up 10) to see our conjectural map of South Field. 1776 boundaries are included for comparison. The location links (red arrows) show where the text refers to an adjacent furlong. The blue arrows show the direction in which the surveyor walked.
The 1776 and tithe map boundaries for much of South Field were straight and presumably were the result of the 1690 and following enclosures. One or two sinuous boundaries survived and we have tried to honour these in our disposition of furlongs. In our initial draft the ‘available’ area on the GIS for South Field was much larger than the total expected (i.e. our calculated) areas. Allowance of around a hundred acres for Porter’s freehold (Porter Greene, see Furlong 6 below), which was reasonably consistent with his 12 bovates in the text, allowed a practical disposition of furlongs in the north of South Field. To the south a couple of furlongs were said to be north of Well Leaze or South Leaze (meadows) which are not mentioned or described anywhere in the survey. The disposition we mapped leaves about 60 acres of these meadow areas between the southern boundaries of South Field and the stream which forms the parish boundary. Dowsty (Dusty) Gate, which bounded furlongs to the east and west we took to be a reference to the Mill on the hill alongside the present Tithby Road. Several furlongs were to the west or east of Werton (Wyverton) Gate which we is shown as a footpath shown on the tithe map from Bingham (Fisher Lane) to Wyverton and parallel to Tithby Road (Dowsty Gate)
Furlong 1 – Millne Furlong
Expected area: 21.26a GIS area: 22.3a
The name implies this was somewhere near the Mill, the position of which is known. Initially we placed No.1 furlong at the cross roads at the edge of town, as this seemed logical. We subsequently revised this to make the furlong squarer and more distinctly at the mill rather than starting a long way from it. In 1776 a group of fields to the south of the Mill and west of Tithby Road were named Mill Plotts, but the combined area was three times the expected area of Millne Furlong. Also, furlong 17 is west of Tithby Road and south of furlong 3, leaving no space for Millne in addition to the Millne furlong of West Field. The position we chose meets the expected area by following the southern 1776 field boundary and a northern enclosure boundary, the piece jutting into furlong 11 maintains the expected areas. It also allows a more likely shape for furlongs 2 and 4 in keeping with the likely orientation of the holdings. In our first model furlong 4 would have been extremely narrow.
There were 68 holdings here, all arable. 12 holdings were freehold, three glebe and none demesne. Robert Porter held eight freehold holdings but not grouped together. Several others held more than one holding – up to eight. The walking direction from the west implies n-s holdings which is confirmed by the notes that some holdings are at the north or the south end of another holding. In our configuration, a single n-s holding in the west would average 6 yards wide, which would leave some holdings below 4 yards, possibly too narrow. Thus it could be this large square furlong should be split into two sections, as sometimes happened at East Bridgford, where holdings were rarely less than 5 yards wide. This would result in holdings of around 12 yards wide, higher than the norm of about 8 yards for East Bridgford and that which we have applied to for East Field Bingham. The argument against this is that some holdings are designated as being north or south of others – would this happen on only a section of the furlong or does it indicate the other holdings were full length? The original long rectangle would have accommodated two blocks of holdings about 250 yards x 8yds.
Furlong 2 – Long Standerds
Expected area: 7.11a GIS area: 6.4a
Furlong 4, see below, was between Long and Broad Standerds and butted north upon the town, which is the basis for furlongs 2, 4 and 5. In the current model Long Standerds is not particularly long. It could be swapped with Broad Standards, but the latter would then cross Werton Gate – not impossible as this happens at least once at East Bridgford and indeed further south on this field (furlong 26).
This furlong had 14 holdings, 13 of which were demesne and one freehold – owned by Robert Porter. All were arable. With such a concentration of ownership it is possible it was already enclosed, and therefore might have established the 1841/1883 boundaries. However it is not possible to fit the required area into any of those boundaries, all of which are straight and thus may well not bear any relationship to the furlongs. The n-s holdings would have been about 11 yards wide by 176. The alternative configuration would have similarly sized holdings but in two blocks.
Furlong 3 – Rowndhill
Expected area: 11.7a GIS area: 11.8a
This was north of furlong 17 and its position on our map fits well with the name, straddling a small rise between the two 50 m contours. The furlong was walked from the north which would imply e-w holdings. These would be across relatively flat land at the brow. There were 24 holdings, all arable; six were freehold (5 to Robert Porter) and one glebe. There was no demesne land.
Furlong 4 – Lyeth betwixte Long Standerds & Broad Standerds butting north upon ye Towne
Expected area: 5.44a GIS area: 5.2a
Furlong 5 – Broad Standerds
Expected area: 22.63a GIS area: 22.6a
Furlong 4 sets the relationship and position of furlongs 2 and 5. Overall they fit the 1883 and tithe boundaries well. See Furlong 2 for alternative disposition of these three furlongs. Furlong 4 is between the other two; there is no west or east demarcation.
Both furlongs were walked from the west which is consistent with n-s holdings running down a gentler slope than at furlong 3. There were nine and eleven holdings respectively, all arable.
Furlong 6 - Butteth north upon Porter Greene south upon Thistleborough Furlong
Expected area: 26.52a GIS area: 36.3a
The GIS area is somewhat larger than we would like! Porter Green does not appear anywhere else in the survey documents. Robert Porter was a large freeholder and in 1776 his successor, H. Sherbrooke held the area we show as freehold to the north, number 0. Most of the surrounding furlongs match their expected areas. With freehold areas not being given in the survey, we could increase the size of Porter Green but we would not then be able to follow the tithe boundary between it and furlong 6.
There were 79 holdings which given the size and shape of the furlong could have been in either one block (6 yards wide) or two (12 yards). The walking direction implies n-s orientation, which is consistent with the slope.
Furlong 7 - Thisleborough
Expected area: 18.76a GIS area: 19.9a
This is positioned in its correct place relative to furlong 6 and generally fits 1841 and 1883 boundaries. The slightly sinuous boundary between furlongs 6 and 7 is also honoured by the layout. The walking direction implies n-s holdings running with the slope of about 160 yards in length. There were 42 holdings with a concentration of 13 demesne holdings. The average width would have been 8 yards.
Furlong 8 - Butteth west upon Dowsty Gate
Expected area: 8.17a GIS area: 8.2a
The expected area is achieved on the map. The eastern sinuous boundary is not shown on either tithe or 1883 maps but it could be argued is a logical extension of the boundary between furlongs 15, 32 and 16. The implied e-w orientation of holdings would have been across the slope but at 200 yards would have been 20 yards longer than north-south. The 38 arable holdings would have been about 4 yards wide. They would only have been 5 yards with a n-s orientation. The holdings were small; only the 16 demesne holdings and two others were over 1000 square yards.
Furlong 9 - Coneygray
Expected area: 17.7a GIS area: 17.6a
As with a similarly named furlong in East Field, we have placed this next to where we have identified Coneygarth Close. N-s Holdings of about 400 yards by 3.5 yards are implied by the walking direction. A more practical 200 x 8 is achieved e-w across a slope of only about 3%.
Furlong 10 - Butteth east upon Bowse Cloase gate west upon Buske Furlong
Expected area: 9.92a GIS area: 9.9a
We can only assume Bowse Cloase Gate leads to Bowse Cloase– see East 22. North-south holdings would have been 230 yards long rather than 196 yards e-w across the direction of walking. The latter widths would still have been only 5.5 yards. With a slope of 4% we are not sure how important drainage considerations are above walking direction. There were 40 arable holdings with no demesne and only one glebe and eight freeholds.
Furlong 11 – Whatton Hedge Furlong
Expected area: 12.53a GIS area: 12.9a
Whatton Hedge is mentioned in the directional information for furlong 12 but it is unclear whether this reference is to a Hedgee (boundary) or to the furlong. It is also mentioned in furlong 13 which buts west upon it, as we have shown. Being in south field, the reference to Whatton cannot mean literally the township of that name as this is the eastern border of parts of East Field. Our disposition allows the Hedgee to be the boundary of Werton Gate, but with no supporting evidence!
The awkward shape we have assigned is 580 yards long and narrow and might suggest two blocks of n-s holdings to fit the walking direction, which would be almost 8 yards wide rather than 3.7 as a single block. There are no holdings at East Bridgford greater than about 400 yards long without being split into two parts. All holdings were arable.
Furlong 12 - Shorte Lands of the last furlonge butting south upon Whatton Hedge
Expected area: 3.43a GIS area: 3.2a
We have placed this south of furlong 13 to fulfil the information attached to that furlong (i.e. south of it) and placing it the south end of Whatton Hedge furlong, not quite but nearly honouring the phrase ‘butting south upon...’. It could also be placed at the northern end of furlong 11, which would leave 11 directly south of it but not quite allowing furlong 13 to join to its north end. The small northern promontory we have shown for furlong 11 is 3.2 acres. This would leave a tenuous connection to furlong 13, which itself has to but west upon Dowsty Gate! This placement would perhaps more nearly fit the description ‘shorte land’, being somewhat narrower than the rest of Whatton Hedge furlong would be.
The 18 holdings here would be 12 yards wide e-w, across the direction of walking and only 3.4 yards wide n-s with the slope. Interestingly the single demesne holding, number 9 (544 square yards), is described as “A piece called a mere” and is the only meadowland in the furlong. Was there a small pond? Was it a boundary or an access road (several access roads at east Bridgford were called meres)? There is a dot on the tithe map that could have been a pond but well south of where the holding would be. It was perhaps more likely an access path.
Furlong 13 - Butteth west upon Dowstye Gate east upon Watton Hedge Fur’ & joineth to the north end of the last, called Shorte Lands
Expected area: 8.83a GIS area: 11.8a
The GIS area exceeds the expected area by a higher proportion than the surrounding furlongs, but the disposition does honour the old boundary we have used for furlong 11.
The 32 arable holdings here (no demesne) would have been e-w and averaged 7 yards wide by 250. They would have varied from 250 to 170 yards long with a n-s orientation.
Furlong 14 – Buske Furlong
Expected area: 25.92a GIS area: 29.8a
The GIS area is somewhat higher than the expected, probably because we have honoured the sinuous boundary with furlong 9. Furlong 10 buts west upon it, as shown. The southern boundary is arbitrarily drawn to coincide with that for furlong 10, thus the furlong could be shortened.
E-w holdings of around 200 yards length fit well with the walking direction; with a n-s orientation the length would be over 700 yards. There were 37 holdings with a block of 13 demesne holdings one holding south of the northern boundary.
Furlong 15 – joineth west to Dowsty Gate
Expected area: 3.83a GIS area 4.3a
Well Furlong is noted as being south of furlong 27 but is not listed itself, but if it was a separate furlong there would be 34 not 33! We have made it number 15, which fits here but leaves 32 slightly too big.
There are 21 holdings including a demesne holding (no. 6) noted as 'A parcel called a mere' similar to furlong 12. (It is beginning to look as if Mere is an access road through the furlong as happened in East Bridgford.).
All holdings were arable. A n-s orientation fitting with the walking direction would produce holdings 4.5 yards wide, e-w would give 9 yards.
Furlong 16 - Parte of the Eighte Furlong
Expected area: 12.4a GIS area: 12.4a
This is an enigma! Eighte Furlong might be furlong number 8, in which case we have placed one of them wrongly! However, attempts to place it adjoining furlong 8 either have it crossing an old boundary and making furlong 15 very narrow or extending so far south as to prevent the correct relative positioning of numbers 15, 33, 32 and 31.
There were 44 holdings, all arable. These would have been 120 yards by 8.5 yards if oriented e-w across the slope in accordance with the walking direction.
Furlong 17 - Butteth east upon Dowsty Gate & joineth north to Rowndhill Furlonge
Expected area: 43.87a GIS area: 42.2a
This is clearly west of Tithby Lane and therefore Rowndhill is also. The irregular shape is largely due to our positioning of the surrounding generally related furlongs.
There were 73 e-w holdings averaging 10 yards wide by 280 yards long, including a couple of blocks of demesne land, one of which (holding no.2) was pasture; all the remainder were arable. Several were divided with the note “at the east end…” confirming the orientation. Holding 36 has the note “At E end 'haxtorum ?' of the last strip” (check meaning).
Furlong 18 - Joineth east to the last fur’
Expected area: 4.46a GIS area: 4.5a
Its position on the map is logically forced by three furlongs to the south.
There were 23 holdings, all arable and nearly all less than 1000 square yards and about 7 yards wide if the implied n-s orientation is correct.
Furlong 19 - Butteth so’ upon Shorte Leaze
Expected area: 8 a GIS area: 8.0a
Furlong 20 - Lyeth betwixt Well Leaze & Shorte Leaze
Expected area: 1.86a GIS area: 1.9a
Apart from furlong 20, Shorte Leaze is not mentioned elsewhere in the survey. We assume it is meadowland alongside the stream to the south. These furlongs are placed here largely as a result of more positive directions for other furlongs.
Furlong 19 had 26 holdings, all arable except number 19 which is a single holding of 968 square yards of demesne pasture with the note “a parcel called a meere”; there is a block of six demesne holdings at the other end of the furlong. With a n-s orientation in keeping with the walking direction they would be 120 yards by 11.
Furlong 20 had 19 holdings, all less than 600 square yards and all arable. If they attained the norm of 8 yards wide and were oriented n-s as per the walking direction, the furlong would be 160 yards long (e-w) as shown on the map.
Furlong 21 - Butteth east upon the fur’ lyinge on the west syde of Dowstye Gate
Expected area: 2.26a GIS area: 2.3a
This placed in accordance with the directional information for itself and furlong 22. There were 17 arable n-s holdings mostly under 700 square yards and averaging 11 yards wide.
Furlong 22 - Butteth so’ upon the last & joineth west to Brackendale Feilde
Expected area: 14.79a GIS area: 14.7a
Tithe boundaries in this area all seem to be from the enclosure so we have not tried to follow them, but rather achieve the expected area. There were 62 holdings including a 10 strip block of demesne (number 15) and a single demesne strip (number 2) with the note “a parcel called a mere”. The large demesne block was meadow, the rest arable. The long narrow shape we have chosen to fit other furlongs in South and West fields is 582 yards long and would need to have two blocks of holdings if they ran n-s as implied by the walking direction, otherwise the holdings would be 2 yards wide; even so they would only be 4 yards wide. If they were e-w they could be 9 yards wide. If the n-s orientation is correct then we probably have an incorrect shape.
Furlong 23 – Woodgate Furlong - buttinge west upon Woodgat’, so’ ye Ox Past[ure]’
Expected area: 5.1a GIS area: 4.6a
We have placed this on the map relative to furlong 22 and to our assumed position for Ox Pasture (see below). We believe the area of wood land mentioned in Domesday may have been immediately west of this (see ****). All 29 holdings were arable with a block of five as demesne. Again we may have a wrong shape here as e-w holdings would have been only 4 yards wide even in two blocks and n-s holdings of 15 x 50 yards are a bit unlikely.
Furlong 24 - Butteth south upon the Well head north upon the last fur’ joining west to the Cow Pasture & east to the Well Furlonge
Expected area: 1.75a GIS area: 1.7a
We are rather assuming Cow Pasture is part of the Ox Pasture. There is evidence of an old stream rising around here and the St Thomas Cross furlong name (31, placed on the opposite side of Tithby Road) may well be referring to a name for the well. It also fits with our assumptions about Well Leaze (furlong 20).
Three of the five holdings were arable and took up 2200 square yards. The other two (both occupied by Stephen Parke) were pasture and amounted to 6500 square yards. The shape is arbitrary and would have supported holdings 12 yards wide.
Furlong 25 – Butteth west upon Werton Gate & joineth south to the north end of a fur’ betwixt Well Leaz & Short Leaz
Expected area: 7.97a GIS area: 7.8a
This is dependant on the position we have chosen for furlong 20 but adds validity to that position in that Werton Gate has to be taken into account. There were 41 arable holdings with a block of 8 demesne. An e-w orientation on our shape would have given widths of only 4 yards as opposed to the more normal 8 yards n-s, with the slope but contrary to the walking direction. On a small field might he not have walked along the line of the holdings? Given the relatively firm position of this furlong relative to the surrounding ones and the totality of the location information, we are reasonably confident of the shape.
Furlong 26 – Crosseth over Werton Gate
Expected area: 3.46a GIS area: 4.0a
This is the only instance in Bingham where a furlong is recorded as being bisected by a track way, but it did happen in East Bridgford. The lack of other information meant that its position on our map has to fill a gap left after other placements were made. It then fixes the position of furlong 27. There were 13 arable holdings possibly split by Werton Gate into two blocks. They would have been only 4 yards wide. N-s they would be only 50 yards long, a feature seen only on one small part of one very oddly shaped furlong in East Bridgford.
Furlong 27 - joineth east to the west end of the last fur’ & butteth so’ upon Well Fur’
Expected area: 1.37a GIS area: 1.3a
Well Furlong is not listed. It could be St Thomas Cross, in which case we have the relationship the wrong way round and calls into question the location of furlong 26. On the other hand it could be a name for furlong 15 which we have placed immediately north of Well Leaze, hence Well Furlong.
There were eleven arable holdings mainly less than 1000 square yards. Our plan would give short wide holdings running north-south.
Furlong 28 - Joineth south to Well Leaz & butteth east upon Werton Gate
Expected area: 7.9a GIS area: 7.9a
The impossibility of placing on Tithby Road all the furlongs that bordered Werton gate along with those that bordered Dowsty gate resulted in the conclusion that Werton Gate was the footpath to the east of Tithby Road. 46 arable holdings, mainly less than 1000 square yards, with our geometry would be 210 yards by 4.5 oriented e-w, to accord with the walking direction. Only slightly wider holdings would be achieved n-s. It is difficult to choose geometry around here that fits all the required parameters.
Furlong 29 – Nether Black Miles
Expected area: 15.39a GIS area: 14.6a
Furlong 30 – Upper Black Myles
Expected area: 13.59a GIS area: 13.5a
These furlongs lack any indication of adjacency with each other, except for the name, or with any other furlong. Thus they have been located in a space not used for any other sequence. It seemed reasonable to place Upper Black Myles uphill from Nether Black Myles. The walking directions would make it possible for them to have been walked sequentially, one from the east, the next from the west.
Furlong 29 was walked from the east, 30 from the west, implying n-s orientation for the holdings and strengthening the possibility that they were walked sequentially. There were 53 wholly arable holdings in furlong 29 with two blocks of demesne, each of about 13000 square yards. Our geometry would produce n-s holdings about 4 yards wide and 350 yards long. Three yard wide holdings by 350 yards would result from the geometry of furlong 30. The problem here is that our dispositions are constrained by the Porter freehold and the two East Field furlongs. E-W holdings would be a lot wider but would be across the slope. There was a 14000 sq yd block of demesne land.
Furlong 31 – Sct Thomas Cross
Expected area: 11.26a GIS area: 11.5a
This has to be south of Furlong 32 and 33. In our disposition 33 is west but could be thought of as south east.
We have no information as to the origin of the name, except that St Thomas Crosses were sometimes found at wells and springs, which may explain Well Head Leaze etc around here. St Thomas might be St Thomas á Becket.
The 49 holdings here were all arable and included a 15000 sq yd block of demesne land. The furlong was walked from the east, which would imply n-s holdings about 250 yds by 5 yds.
Furlong 32 - Joineth so’ to the nor’ end of the last & butteth west upon Woodgate
Expected area: 9.87a GIS area: 12a
This is placed according to its directions. A pond is shown at the north end of this furlong in 1883 (but not on the tithe map), with a stream flowing south. This could be another explanation for Well Leaze, Well furlong etc, perhaps making this Well Furlong.
There were 39 holdings with a block of 16000 sq yds of demesne land. N-s holdings would have been 6.5 yards wide and 256 yds long.
Furlong 33 - Butteth so’ upon St Tho’ Crosse Fur’ & joining east to Werton Gate
Expected area: 4.1a GIS area: 4.1a
The space available after placing the surrounding furlongs forced this to stretch the meaning of butteth south!
There were 18 arable holdings with no demesne land, giving an average for the assumed n-s orientation of 190 yards by 5.6.