- BINGHAM: AN OVERVIEW
- HISTORY OF BINGHAM
- STUDY OF OLD MAPS
- BUILT HERITAGE
- CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
- FARMING IN BINGHAM
- BINGHAM AT WAR
- BINGHAM'S RAILWAYS
- ORAL HISTORY
- NATURAL HISTORY
19 Church Street
Sometime known as Church View
19 Church Street is not exactly what it appears to be. The front, together with number 17, is a Victorian house of large proportions inside. The front room is 18 feet square, and one building historian has said that the 'proper' curved bay window is typical of a shop rather than a house of the period. John Horsepool, who built it, is listed in the directories of 1844 and 1853 as a butcher of Church Street. His father, James, bought the cottage in 1811. John inherited and eventually extended between 1840 and the 1860s. A portion of a seventeenth century cottage survives at the rear although the walls seem to have been rebuilt at the same time as the extension was built. However, inside the beams and reed and plaster floor of the cottage reveal its older origins. The first record of sale is from 1705. Until Horsepool the cottage had been what we would call today an investment property, rented probably to cottagers who would have made full use of its acre and a quarter of land. Unusually for Bingham it was not part of the Shelford Estate. The present owners disposed of much of this in the 1990s for the development of four bungalows. At some point in the eighteenth or nineteenth century the property is said to have been occupied by night soil collectors, and the present owners certainly attest that the quality of the soil on their garden was far greater than the surrounding properties! The seventeenth century coach house, stables and other outbuildings remain.
Review of Documents and other information
The first document in the bundle of deeds for 19 Church Street is an abstract of title drawn up in 1811 to establish the title of Mr William Blagg to 'two houses and land situate at Bingham'.
The first document noted therein is of 12th April 1705 and recites indentures of lease and release between Edward Peat of Belton, gentleman and his wife and John Bradshaw, innkeeper, of Bingham. Lease and release was a method of sale of freeholds out of a family holding without having to register the transaction. This establishes that from at least several years before this the land was not part of the Shelford Estate of the Earls of Chesterfield as so much of Bingham was. The price was £45. The description of the property was:
All that cottage or tenement and croft with the garden thereto adjoining situate standing lying and being in Bingham aforesaid then late in the tenure or occupation of John Cockram, gent.
Thus at this stage only one cottage is involved, it being let to Cockram.
In his will of 5th November 1719 John Bradshaw left 'his houses in Bingham in the several tenures of Wm Stockdale and Samuel Richmond all the lands and hereditaments which he purchased unto his daughter Ann Bradshaw'. As there are no records of the purchase of a second house he may already have owned one of the two cottages for which the Abstract is drawn. He is described in his will and inventory as a plumber and glazier who also owned a grocer's shop. It is possible the latter was the forerunner of the shop now known as number 15. He rented the cottages to Mr Stockdale and Samuel Richmond, a surname that appears in many directories over the nineteenth century. The pink house (No36) in Doncaster's or Temperance yard off Long Acre is called Bradshaw's Cottages and is late 19C. One might wonder if it is the same family? Might John have owned another house in in that area?
Indentures of lease and release were usually drawn as two documents on successive days. The first leases the land and the second releases the freehold of it to the lessee. On 8th and 9th April 1724 indentures of lease and release were drawn between Bridgett Bradshaw, John's widow, his son George and daughter Ann transferring the cottages to William Shepperson and Joseph Musson (two old Bingham family names. Shepperson was a yeoman farmer of substantial wealth) as trustees for Ann in preparation for her forthcoming marriage to John Markham, gentleman, of Bingham. He was the son of a rich tallow chandler and the rent from the cottages would be a part of her dowry.
The description reveals:
'all those two cottages or tenements and one orchard (there are still old plum and apple trees on the original plot) and one close thereto adjoining then or late in the occupation of Jn (John or Jonathon?) Haycock '
Bridget has the use of the properties for life, Ann for life and for the heirs of her body by John Markham lawfully begotten (!), or indeed any other heirs lawfully begotten (not by John Markham - they thought of everything!).
John Markham died in 1730 and Ann in 1737, aged 41. She left the property to their only child, Mary. Executors were her brother George and William Shepperson, her trustee.
On 9th and 10th October 1753 another lease and release transfers the properties to Miss Elizabeth Seton of Bingham. Bradshaws party to the transfer are Mary Markham, daughter of Ann and John (both deceased), and George (Mary's uncle, a mercer). Seton paid £200 for the cottages, which now are described as having a bakehouse and yard. They were in the occupation of Rev Hebblethwiate and John Watson.
One Bradshaw was missing from the list of those who sold to Miss Seton. Anyone with a life interest had to be a signatory to disposal agreements, and they missed out John Bradshaw, draper, of Bingham who was the first John Bradshaw's (aforesaid plumber and glazier) grandson and heir by his first wife (Christian name not given). For a payment of 10/- he relinquished his interest in an indenture of 7 April 1755! The premises were then in the tenure of William East and Sarah Hart (members of the Hart family still live in Bingham and were associated with 4 Long Acre). The original of this deed is in Nottinghamshire Archives office.
An indenture was drawn up on 11th and 12th April in the same year between Elizabeth Seton, Edmund Combe, gentleman, of New Inn Middlesex (2nd part) and James Humberston, gentleman of Layton, Essex (3rd part) - clearly the reason why they had to sort out the grandson's position! For a consideration of 10/- apiece Mary Markham and Elisabeth Seton granted and bargained the properties to Combe.
Later in the agreement 'it should be lawful for James Humberton to prosecute against Edmund Combe writs of entry sur desizin and demand all the said premises'. This looks like a loan agreement with a clause allowing possession on default. No purchase or loan monies seem to have changed hands - there may be missing information.
An exemplification of recovery was executed 'Trinity Term 28th George 3rd' (presumably 1755) whereby Mary Markham took possession again.
Thus the previous agreement may well have been a trust arrangement, although Edmund Combe is noted as tenant with Mary as vouchee and Humberton as demandant. By this time the property is described as
'two messuages, two gardens, one acre of land, one acre of pasture and common pasture for all manner of cattle..'
On 16th and 17th January 1756 an indenture of lease and release between Elizabeth Seton and William Hill of Melton Mowbray, miller, sets up a lease and a trust in anticipation of their marriage. Lessees were Robert Richardson, grazier of Stapleford, Leicestershire and Thomas Exon, grazier of Eastwell, Leicestershire. Richard Kirkby clerk of Bingham (solicitor?) and Richard Inet, surgeon of Melton were of third and fourth part (agents/witnesses). It is noteworthy that this arrangement was made 'with the consent' of her intended husband. The original of the deed dated 16th January is in Nottinghamshire Archives office.
The lease provides for Richardson and Exon 'to hold' the property (presumably as trustees) for
'To the use of' Elizabeth Seton until marriage
To the use of Kirkby and Inet for the lifetime of Elizabeth Seton (99 years thence next ensuing (if the said ES should so long live) (i.e. as trustees to manage the property on her behalf)
Upon trust for Elizabeth Seton to receive the profits subject to
life interests for
Lawful heirs of Elizabeth Seton
Mary Allen wife of Samuel Allen (Mansfield), malster, and sister to Elizabeth Seton
Elizabeth Allen, daughter of Mary Allen
Elizabeth Seton retained the right to change these arrangements at any time up to and including writing of her will.
After her death probate was granted on 10th November 1756 to William Hill. She left the properties to him 'in testimony of the sincere love and affection which she had and justly bore towards William Hill her most dear and indulgent husband..'. However she desired of her husband to give £100 to Mary Askew, spinster of Bingham.
By his will of 17 November 1795 William left his property in Melton and Long Clawson to his daughter Elizabeth and his property in Bingham together with his plate, furniture, linen and ready money to his son William.
By indentures of lease and release dated 31 March and 1 April 1802 the son William, sold the Bingham properties to William Blagg, grazier of Scarrington for £470. William Whyman was trustee (he was a tanner of Scarrington).
In the description of the property the bakehouse is not mentioned and the acreage is down to one. There are still two cottages, in the tenure of George Baxter and John Holmes. In Pigot's 1829 and Whites 1832 directory Baxter is a grocer of Church Street - the shop now number 15 perhaps, behind which the former bakehouse is still situated. He became the owner of White Lodge (number 7 Church Street) in 1807 by assignment from his uncle and between 1807 and 1810 was one of a consortium that built much of Market Street and Union Street. William Hemstock is mentioned in the same directory as a baker, most probably at the bakehouse behind the shop. Holmes is not in any directory.
At some point, Blagg sold the shop (and bakehouse) to Baxter. On 26th and 27th April 1811 he sold the other cottage (what is now 19 Church Street) to James Horsepool, butcher, of Bingham, for £600. The two separate documents of lease and release survive. William Whyman is Blagg's agent/trustee again and William Richard Middlemore, butcher of Nottingham acts for Horsepool
The first is a 'lease' for which the consideration is 5/-. The description is 'all that messuage or tenement and slaughterhouse (this is new), stable, outbuildings, yard, garden, little close, or homestead and appurtenances, one acre or thereabouts lately in the occupation of John Holmes and now of James Horsepool
the north by Glebe land of Rev Robert Lowe (now Robert Miles School playing field),
the east by hereditaments of Lord Chesterfield (No 21)
the south by Town (now Church) Street
the west by the hereditaments of George Baxter (No 15).
To pay a rent of one peppercorn annually
on the last day of the said term (should it be demanded).
The second is the actual transfer of the freehold for a consideration of £600. This lease recites the descriptions etc of the first and interestingly adds a provision to allow George Baxter (now in ownership of the second cottage, right of access to a common pump across the yard. He is also to share the maintenance costs of these. Presumably at the time the second cottage did not have its own well.
There is a third document from this time, a deed of covenant for the production of title deeds, dated 27 April 1811, between William Blagg (late of Scarrington, now of The Red Lodge, which still exists on the Fosse Road) and James Horsepool. Blagg had owned other properties which were included in the original title deeds and in this document Horsepool agrees Blagg can retain these documents provided Horsepool can have access when he needs it (at the proper cost and charges). The schedule lists the documents, which are all those referred to in the abstract of title prepared for Horsepool when he bought the property. This is why these are not in the present bundle.
The next abstract of title was drawn up in 1895. We do not know when James Horsepool died to be succeeded by John. There is no mention in any abstracts of James leaving property to John.
John Horsepool died on 30 March 1873. The abstract records that in his will of 12th March 1868 he appointed as executors George Hassall, farmer of Shelford (presumably of the family of the Earl of Chesterfield's well known Agent, John Hassall who died in 1859), Robert Brewster (farmer of Bingham) and John Wilkinson Wright (miller of Bingham). He left his houses and premises in Church Street, now in the occupation of John Wilkinson Wright, to his widow, Ann Horsepool for life and after her decease to his sister Elizabeth Brewster, of Denton, Lincs and after her demise to his nephew John Brewster. He left the remainder of his estate in Bingham, consisting of other houses (including next door number 17) and buildings to his sister and then his nephew. There is no mention of children of John Horsepool so presumably there were none.
Up to this point there has been no mention of there being two houses (numbers 17 and 19) when James Horsepool had bought only one of the two cottages. This point is clarified in a fascinating set of questions before contract, which themselves reveal that the language of lawyers has a long history!
One question was:
Can the vendor furnish any evidence of the identity of the property sold with that to which title is shown in the abstract? The descriptions are very vague- what is the area of Lot 2?
The answer was:
The vendor could perhaps make a Declaration that John Horsepool owned one house and altered it and built the other one. If he could not there are plenty of people in Bingham who could speak as to this. We do not know the area of Lot 2 (presumably number 17, as number 19 has all the land of the previous cottage). Even then local knowledge was needed!
The latest directory entry we have so far for James is 1855 and John’s will of 1868 mentioned two houses. The earliest rebuild date is therefore somewhere between these. John Horsepool seems to have extended number 19 for himself and wife and number 17 for his sister. Number 19 fronts a 17/18C cottage that is presumably the remains of the original, although much of the exterior brick is contemporary with the newer bit. Inside are substantial old beams, a reed and plaster upstairs floor and exposed narrow brickwork on interior walls. Number 17 is entirely 'new'. Number 19 has the original 18C outbuildings and had the one-acre close (now partly sold off for 1990s infill).
Number 19's cellar, under the rear part of the later building, has some old narrow brick and has later thralls and a whitewashed panelled ceiling. It has been identified as possibly for dairy type use or it may have had a use in connection with the slaughterhouse and butchery business of Horsepools. Hooks in the main beams may have been used for hanging meat. Part of the older cottage over must have been demolished to make way for the newer part. It is not clear how much more of the cottage had been demolished to make way for the new. The present owners did find the wooden lintel of a small aperture on the south wall of the dining room, the nearest part of the old cottage to Church Street. In the ceiling of a recess off the cellar one can see a stone slab, now covered by the hallway floor tiles and which could have been the threshold to a front door. Perhaps the original was L shaped with the part over the cellar protruding towards the street:
The next entry in the Abstract is a note of a Succession Account 'passed by Elizabeth Brewster on her succession to the property'. It notes receipts of seven instalments. The first is described as 'instalment of duty'; these were estate duty payments by instalment. The first was paid on 9 March 1874; the remaining payments were due on: 24 October 1874, 10 April 1875, 21 October 1875, 13 April 1876, 30 October 1876, 24 April 1877 22 February 1878. The actual Inland Revenue returns are in the Nottinghamshire Archives. Ann would presumably not be liable for Duty as she was the widow.
On 22nd February 1878 John Brewster, the nephew, borrowed £1300 from Joseph Richardson, gentleman, of Nottingham using the houses as security (i.e. a mortgage, although not called that). This agreement describes two houses, one in occupation of Anne Horsepool and the other with no occupant named. There are hints that Elizabeth lives here but nothing written. Interest was charged at 4.5%. Richards had power of sale on default. Brewster covenanted to pay the succession duty when his aunt Ann died, indemnifying Richardson from the charge.
The loan was repaid on 19th May 1881. But his financial situation had not improved. On the same day and with his mother's formal assent he borrowed £1500 from John Marriott, farmer of Cropwell Butler, William Sanday, gentleman of Radcliffe on Trent and Charles Butlin gentleman of Nottingham. Interest rate is now 4%. Elizabeth Brewster has agreed to be a party to the indenture. Does this mean his credit was not good and he needed his mother to stand guarantor? The abstract recites that she will make the six monthly payments of interest. There was the usual power of sale on default.
By now the two premises are described as being in the occupation of Elizabeth Brewster and Ann Horsepool respectively. Elizabeth died on 17 November 1889 and Ann on 28 November 1892. The abstract records that John was liable for duty in both cases and we have copies of the relevant tax forms.
Then follows the enquiries before contract, as we would term them. We have not found such documents in any other deed bundles before so they are interesting in this respect. Lawyers answers vary from 'We don't know', 'Not that we are aware of', ' we believe not', 'we will enquire'. Plus ça change!
Clearly in default of his loan, John Brewster and his mortgagors sold both houses to Mr Thomas G Brewitt on 7 October 1895. John Brewster is described as farmer of Denton Lodge. The price was only £670, somewhat short of the £1500 (plus some unpaid interest) he owed. The deeds are silent as to how he paid the rest! Both houses were unoccupied at the time of sale although a Dr Westwood had occupied number 19 for a while. He seems to have moved into White Lodge, having been a doctor's residence since about 1840 and thus already equipped with a surgery, to succeed Dr Henry Wootton who had retired to Porchester Villas on Long Acre. Brewster was allowed to retain £20 of the consideration, the rest going to his mortgagors. The slaughterhouse has disappeared from the description of the property, presumably pulled down as an insalubrious appendage to what had become smart residential premises!
A Thomas George Brewitt is recorded as a private resident of Church Street in the 1896 Wrights directory. In 1897 a supplemental abstract of title was drawn up prior to the next transfer of ownership. Brewitt died on 4th October 1897, having made a will on 28 November 1887. He appointed his sister, Louisa Brewitt (spinster of Nottingham) and his son, George William Brewitt (pork butcher of Nottingham) as executors with power to sell if they thought fit. This they did on 6 December 1897 to Mr John Richmond, of Church Street, Bingham silk manufacturer. The price was £800. The indenture records that Thomas Brewitt had lived in the house and that Richmond currently occupied it, presumably already a tenant. The second house is recorded as having been in the occupation of Mr Littledyke and now of Mr Perkins. Richmond took out a mortgage for £500 with the Leek and Moorlands Building Society on 7 December 1897 and repaid it on 14 December 1945. The houses remained the possession of the Richmond family until Number 19 was sold to Mr Nicholson. The present owners purchased the property in 1977.
In the 1990s a substantial portion of the land was been sold off and new bungalows erected. Infill goes on!
Directory Entries for Horsepools in Church Street
|James||butcher and farmer||Church Street|
|James||butcher and farmer||Church Street|
|James||butcher||no address (Kellys Dir)|
|Mrs Ann||Church Street|
|Mrs Ann||Church Street|
|Mrs Sarah Hardstaff||Church Street|